Zeiss EVO LS25 – Atmospheric scanning electron microscope
The atmospheric scanning electron microscope (AREM) generates a beam of electrons. Electrons from the beam hit sample atoms and generate measurable interactions. These interactions can be used for imaging. Furthermore, spatially resolved, chemical surface analysis is possible using the built-in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX).
Surface morphology, (semiquantitative) chemical composition (point measurements, area measurements), distance measurements, qualitative and quantitative pore analysis.
- working in high and low vacuum
- large sample sizes (up to 210 mm height)
- max. lateral resolution of 500 nm
- Heating module
- Tension-compression module
- Peltier element (cooling table)
Bruker D2 Phaser – X-ray diffractometer
X-rays, like visible light, are electromagnetic waves. The short wavelength of X-rays allows diﬀraction and reﬂection from lattice planes of minerals. These lattice planes diﬀract the incoming X-rays characteristically for each mineral, depending on its chemical composition and crystal structure. The intensities and diﬀraction angles can be used to identify crystalline mineral phases.
Mineral phases in solid mixtures (qualitative and quantitative).
Invenio R FTIR spectrometer with an ATR unit and MIR-FIR spectral range extension (Bruker Optik GmbH).
Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy is an analytical method that uses infrared radiation (ranging from 800 nm to 1 mm wavelength) to excite different energy states in molecules. Solid an liquid samples can be examined by means of FTIR. An infrared beam (with various wavelengths) is directed at the sample. Through the absorption of different wavelengths by the sample, molecules are identifiable. From this, the chemical composition can be qualified and partially quantified. This investigation method can be used as a complementary method to our other chemical-mineralogical investigations (e. g. for X-ray amorphous material)
Qualification and quantification of chemical composition from crystalline and amorphous material, in-situ phase change and solid state reaction
STA 449 F5 Jupiter (Netzsch)
Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) refers to the simultaneous application of thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to the same sample in the same instrument. The measurement conditions in STA are completely identical for the TG and DTA signals. TGA is often used to determine the composition of mineral binders, for an evaluation of their reactivity potential, and as a complementary analysis to XRD to complete the phase analysis.
Mass changes, temperature stability, oxidation/reduction behavior, decomposition, corrosion, quantitative chemical composition
Testing possibilities according to:
ISO 11358, ASTM D3895, DIN 51004, DIN 51006, DIN 51007
Isothermal reaction calorimeter MC CAL from C3 Prozess- und Analysentechnik
By means of reaction calorimetric measurement, the enthalpy of reaction of the exothermic hydration process of cement can be recorded in detail according to DIN EN 196-8. Reaction calorimetry offers a direct approach to measuring temperature changes caused by any type of reaction. It can therefore be applied to a large number of research questions and often completes the material-technological picture of a substance.
Heat release of hydraulic binders, determination of setting behavior, hydration process
- 12 measuring channels for parallel measurements
- Mixing cell for mixing the sample with water directly in the sample chamber to record even the earliest reactions (< 30 sec)
- Sample volume: 20 ml
- Measuring range: ± 2 W dynamic
- Temperature range: 5-90 °C
- Temperature stability: ± 0.01 °C
- Limit detectability (abs.): 20 μW
- Accuracy: ± 25 μW
DSC 214 Polyma (Netzsch)
“Diﬀerential Scanning Calorimetry” (DSC) is a thermal analysis method for measuring the amount of heat given oﬀ or absorbed by a sample during heating, cooling or during an isothermal process. In building physics, the method is used, among other things, to determine melting and glass transition temperatures or the speciﬁc heat capacity.
In addition, a phase change of a material can be identiﬁed via heat absorption or release. Thus, the exact temperature of the phase change as well as the amount of energy converted in the process can be quantiﬁed.
Char. Temperatures, Enthalpies, Crystallinity, Oxidation stability, Degree of cure, Eutectic purity, Speciﬁc heat, Molecular weight distribution.
Testing possibilities according to:
DIN EN ISO 11357, ASTM D3417, ASTM D3418, ASTM D4591, ASTM E793, ASTM E794, ASTM E1356, ASTM F2625, DIN 51007, DIN 53545, EN 61074 (IEC 1074), IEC 1006, ASTM D3350, ASTM D3895, DS 2131.2, DIN EN 728, ISO 11409, DIN 65467
Partica LA-950V2 von Horiba (Retzsch)
A laser granulometer can be used to determine the particle size distribution of ultra-ﬁne powders by means of light refraction on very small particles. In this way, it is possible to optimize the packing density of the ﬁnes and the binder in a concrete. This is one of the technologies crucial to the production of modern high-performance concretes (HPC, UHPC). Only by eliminating the smallest voids in the cement paste are the high densities, strengths and durability of modern concretes possible.
Particle size distribution (0.1 µm to 3.00 mm), Quantile values of particle sizes, Speciﬁc surface area.
Necessary input variables
- Refractive index of the investigated substance
- Refractive index of the dispersing medium
Requirements for investigated substances:
- Solid particles with diameters from 0.1 μm to 3.0 mm
- The bulk density should be at least 800 kg/m³
Pascal 140 von ThermoFisher Scientific
The mercury (pressure) porosimetry (MIP, mercury intrusion porosimetry) technique is based on the pressure-dependent intrusion of evacuated pores by non-wetting mercury. Under the simplifying assumption that the pores of the investigated material have a cylindrical shape, a speciﬁc pore size is assigned to each working pressure. The results are output graphically and in tabular form. The pore radii are usually plotted on a logarithmic scale. The derivative of the pore volume sum curve by the logarithm of the pore radius gives the diﬀerential pore size distribution curve.
Pore size and pore volume, pore size distribution, bulk density, speciﬁc surface area
Pyknomatik-ATC von ThermoFisher Scientific
The helium pycnometer can be used to determine the pure density of solids very accurately. If this is known, porosities can be calculated from it with high precision. For this purpose, material samples are ﬁnely weighed and then ﬁlled with helium in a sample chamber with a deﬁned volume. The amount of helium provides information about the pore space or the solid content.
Pore volume, pure density
Tension/compression module from Kammrath Weiss
With the handbag-sized mechanical tension/compression module, both force- and displacementcontrolled tests up to a maximum of 5 kN can be performed. Cyclic loads and long-term measurements are also possible. Thanks to its small dimensions, it can be installed in the AREM. Thus, in addition to the mechanical recording of load curves, crack formation and crack propagation in the material even in the size range of micrometers can be recorded by means of imaging.
- Force range: 1 µN to 5 kN
- Specimens (maximum dimensions): 60 mm x 10 mm x 5 mm
- Speeds: 0.3 to 50 µm/sec
- Tension/compression displacement: max. 45 mm
- Displacement measurement: linear encoder; resolution: 100 nm
- Connection: 230/110 V / 50Hz
- Dimensions in mm (LxWxH): approx. 200 x 150 x 55
Stereomicroscope (VHX-600, Keyence)
Imaging examinations are possible using light microscopy. The VHX-600 stereo microscope from Keyence has two interchangeable objectives (25x to 200x magniﬁcation and 500x to 2000x magniﬁcation). In addition, the device is connected to a computer and can store the images digitally. Furthermore, the lens can be controlled by a motor. This allows images to be taken over several mm without losing depth of ﬁeld. This is also used for the automatic measurement of pores.
The software allows several possibilities of length, area and surface measurement.